Effects Of Rural-Urban Migration On The Rural Development In Nigeria
(A Case Study Of Umuahia North Local Government Area)
Written by: Verify ☛ Chapters = 5 ☛ Pages = 61 ☛ Words = 11,250 ☛ Type = Project
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You are reading project material titled: Effects Of Rural-Urban Migration On The Rural Development In Nigeria
Table Of Contents
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of the problem
1.3 Objectives of the study
1.4 Research questions
1.5 Statement of hypothesis
1.6 Significance of the study
1.7 Scope of the study
1.8 Limitation of the study
1.9 Definition of terms
2.1 Literature review
2.3 Causes of rural migration
2.4 Non-development theory of migration
2.5 Development theory of migration
2.6 Concept of development
2.7 Functional relationship between urban and rural areas
2.8 Effects of rural migration
2.9 Strategies for rural development
2.10 Agricultural extension
2.11 Integrated rural development
2.12 Why rural development
3.1 Research design and methodology
3.2 Research design
3.3 Sources/methods of data collection
3.4 Population and sample size
3.5 Sampling techniques
3.6 Validity and reliability of measuring instrument
3.7 Methods of data analysis
4.0 PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA
4.2 Presentation of data
4.3 Analysis of data
4.4 Test of hypothesis
4.5 Interpretation of result
5.0 SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.2 Summary of findings
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Rural development is a process of planned change for which one approach or the other is adopted for improvement and transformation of the rural populace. It is a process of ensuring that the poorer section of the population has some share in the fruit of the economic activity. It is the means by which the provision of social services for the rural population is combined with the promotion of economic growth.
In order to bring about real development in the rural areas, there must exist active collaboration between government, non-governmental agencies, the private sector and the rural communities themselves. Only such collective attempts can improve the quality of life of those communities and significantly reduce the rate of rural–urban migration.
The problems of our urban centers cannot be solved unless those of the rural areas are first solved. Rural–urban migration is functional to rural development and also to the continual development of the urban areas and therefore needs to be stemmed. In order to do this, those facilities and opportunities that exist in the urban centres need to be available to the rural dwellers in the rural areas. Rural development as a concept and as a programme of action has therefore attracted so much attention and material resources that it has become enthroned as an article of faith in the development of many third countries with the conviction that rural development is the wonder formular for replacing rural poverty with rural prosperity in the third world, national government, development agencies and relevant international organizations across rural development in almost all the third world countries.
To many people, rural development simply means agricultural development, to some; it is primarily concerned with welfare. These views are myopic because rural development should include the political lives of the rural dwellers and should be relevant to the alleviation of all the conditions associated with the rural sector. It is true that economic box of the rural people is agriculture, but beyond food. They also need education, employment, decent housing, medical care, electricity, good roads and other means of communication.
The rural development task environment is an inter governmental, supra ministerial, organizational world which is important by a myriad of complex, large-scale, formal and informal organizations, public and private organizations.
Dallam (2003) therefore, conceptualizes rural development as involving four levels of functioning in organization.
- A planned programme of action through national formulated policies
- Self - help through community mobilization and participation
- Technical assistance through a large pool integration of federal recruited professionals.
- Integration of various specialists through a systematic approach to rural development. From this perspective, the motional planning process would start from the grass roots by ascertaining from the people, their needs and this will make maximum achievement of plan programmes. It will therefore relate projects to local resources base and eliminate the bare wagon effect by which communities proliferate the same projects over shorts distances without regard to their optimum utilization; rural-urban migration in Nigeria therefore is a steady flow of young school leavers from the rural areas to the urban areas. Reasons for this rural urban migration are to search for job opportunities that will improve one’s standard of living. Another reason is that people like living or residing in a suitable environment. The third point why people migrate from rural to urban areas is to escape from religions, political and social situation of knowledge and skill.
Almost all the universities and other institution of higher learning are located in urban cities. Those seeking for higher education therefore move to the urban areas in other to attend these institutions. Due to inadequate modern facilities in rural areas, life in rural areas is generally dull. There are no social amenities such as electricity, pipe born water, good and quality health centres. Also there are no social activities like luxury restaurants, hotels, social entertainment centers and good road networks etc. Many youths move to urban areas for the sole purpose of enjoying these facilities.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Umuahia north local government area was established shortly after independence formally in 1961-1964,the local government was under district council headed by District Officer (DO). Umuahia generally was under Bende district until 7th August 1976 when local government system came into being in Nigeria. By 1976, Ikwuano Umuahia became one separated local government with the headquarter in umuahia in 1991when umuahia was carved out from old Imo state when new state were created .Ikwuano now became a separated local government from the entire Umuahia. In 1996, they now divided Umuahia into two parts namely Umuahia north housing the capital territory and its environs.The headquarter of umuahia north is umuahia.Another one is the umuahia south which was also carved out from umuahia.
In Umuahia north local government of Abia state, there exist Eight (8) departments which include thus:
i. Administration Department
ii. Environment Health Department
iii. Health Department
iv. Finance Department
v. Planning and Statistics Department
vi. Social development and Adult Education Department
vii. Agric Department
viii. Works Department
These eight departments that exist in Umuahia North local government area have their different Head of Department (HOD) that heads each department.
The first chairman that headed Umuahia North local government was Mr. Echeghika Akpunku Iheuwa under the governorship of Ike Nwosu. The previous executive chairman by name Royal High Chief Princewil Ikechukwu Ukaegbu left the seat on 21st January 2010 after completing his tenor. Presently, Umuahia North Local government has no executive chairman rather they have the Head of service (HOS) whose name is J.O.C Kalu.
J.O.C Kalu is the one heading Umuahia North Local government until another executive chairman is elected.
Umuahia North Local government area is made up of twenty (20) political wards and 48 Autonomous communities. The 20 twenty political wards include:
1. Isingwu ward
2. Afaraukwu ward
3. Ibeku east ward 1
4. Ibeku east ward ii
5. Ibeku west ward
6. Urban ward 1
7. Urban ward ii
8. Urban ward iii
9. Ugba urban ward iv
10. Urban ward v
11. Afor-ugiri ward i
12. Afor-ugiri ward ii
13. Nkwo-achara ward
14. Azu-eke ward
15. Mbocha ward
16. Ndume ward
17. Orie-ndu ward
18. Okanuga-Alaike ward
19. Nkwo-egwu ward
20. Umuhu ward
The 48 Autonomous communities included as follows:
1. Ndume Autonomous community
2. Mbocha Autonomous community
3. Azu-eke Autonomous community
4. Afaraukwu Autonomous community
5. Okwunaga Autonomous community
6. Isiama-Afara Autonomous community
7. Isingwu Autonomous community
8. Okpu Isingwu Autonomous community
9. Umuawa-Alaocha Autonomous community
10. Umunkaru Umuawa Autonomous community
11. Afor ugiri Autonomous community
12. Egwu-ukwu Autonomous community e.t.c
Each Autonomous Communities have their different Ezes and Tow Union that help in carrying out their specific functions.
1.2. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Some factors leads to the high flow of rural-urban migration such as:
1. Lack of good road network to transport farm products to market where the farmers will sell their products.
2. Insufficient educational facilities to improve the educational standard of the rural dwellers.
3. Inadequate of good pipe-born water that will improve health and lives of people living in the rural areas
4. Lack of electricity that will enhance the standard of living of the local dwellers.
5. Unemployment due to lack of industries in rural areas has also encourage rural-urban migration in Nigeria.
1.3. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The purpose of this study is to identify the effects of rural-urban migration on the rural development of Umuahia North Local government area, which will be outlined as follows:
1. To examine the reason for rural-urban migration this has contributed to the failure in the process of trying to develop the rural areas in Nigeria.
2. To discover the effects and set back which the rural-urban migration has caused in the process of rural development in Nigeria.
3. To offer solution to the causes of rural-urban migration and outlined the measures for development of rural areas to continue migrating to urban areas in search of better living, such as improve standard of living, good education, good pipe-born, electrification, better and quality recreation centers and reducing unemployment rate through building of industries and firms to youths find job.
4. To find solution on how to reduce the rate of rural-urban migration which is a problem in the rural development process in Nigeria.
1.4. REASERCH QUESTIONS
i. What are the effects of rural-urban migration in the rural development of Nigeria?
ii. Do you believe that the educated ones migrate more than the illiterates ones?
iii. What factors lead to rural-urban migration?
iv. Do you think migration affects labour supply?
v. Can industrial hazards in the urban area discourage migration?
1.5. STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS
This research work will base on the following hypothesis:
H0: Rural - urban migration has significant effect on social-development of Umuahia North Local government area.
Hi: Rural –urban migration has no significant effect on social
The development of Umuahia North Local government area.
1.6. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
significance of this study is aimed at finding lasting solutions to rural-urban migration and facilitating rural development through the process of job creation for the youths, laying emphasis on improving rural economic condition and also to make meaningful and sustainable economic decisions necessarily for the acceleration of rural development there by reducing drastically rural-urban migration in the country.
1.7. SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study covers the rural villages in Umuahia North Local government area. This will relate on the effect of rural-urban migration in the rural development of Nigeria. In Umuahia North Local government area, there are no basic industries that will employ the development active labour force, this prompt to the urban migration to the urban areas in search of job opportunities, business enhancement, quality education and quality medical facilities e.t.c.
1.8. LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
A research work is never an easy task to overcome. There are occasions when the researcher would encounter problems which are basic and unavoidable. The research question and questionnaires distributed were limited. The inhabitants of Nigeria and all questions related to effect of rural-urban migration in the rural development in Nigeria was asked, obtaining information for accurate work was not easy. These were obstacles and hindrances, which range from limited time, on willingness and unreadiness of the respondents to give the needed information as objectives and validity of any conclusion drawn from the study.
1.9. DEFINITION OF TERMS
For the purpose of clarity, the following terms have been used in this study and defined.
Rural areas: Living in village and people who are underdeveloped.
Urban Sector: Living in the city or town that is civilized and developed.
Migration: This means, moving from one place to another. May be in search of food, shelter, and clothing or to be comfortable in life.
Development: This is the action or process of moving in an upward manner or being developed.
Modernization: to make a system, methods, etc. more modern and more suitable for use at the present time.
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