Intergovernmental Relations And The Practice Of Federalism In Nigeria

(A Case Study Of Bayelsa State Experience)

Written by: VerifyChapters = 5 ☛ Pages = 59 ☛ Words = 7,639 ☛ Type = Project

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Abstract
NIGERIAN FEDERALISM and Intergovernmental relation is dated back to the colonial era. However, a trace of the Nigerian federation shows that the relationship between the central and state, state and state, federal state and local government and local government and local government have been that of competition tensions and conflicts occasioned by the diversify historically, linguistically, culturally, religious, and otherwise in the management of their jurisdictional power, fiscal policies, administrative mechanism and finally their legislative Intergovernmental affairs. But this competition, tensions and conflicts can be mixed through federal-state-local, state-local and local-local and state-state, federal-local-bargaining interactions and cooperation adopted by the various tiers of government in Nigeria as the case in the United State.
Table of Content
Title Page
Approval Page
Dedication
Acknowledgment
Abstract
Table Of Content

CHAPTER ONE
1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background Of The Study
1.2 Statement Of The Problem
1.3 Objectives Of The Study
1.4 Research Questions
1.5 Significance Of The Study
1.6 Scope Of The Study
1.7 Limitation Of The Study
1.8 Definition Of Terms

CHAPTER TWO
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Introduction
2.2 Characteristics Of Inter-Governmental Relations
2.3 Models Of Intergovernmental Relations
2.4 Institutions And Process Of (Igr)
2.5 Statutory Agencies
2.6 Model And Dynamics Of The Relationship At The Local Government Levels In Nigeria
2.7 Intergovernmental Fiscal Relations-
2.8 Conclusion

CHAPTER THREE
3.0 RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Research Design
3.3 Source/Methods Of Data Collection
3.4 Population And Sample Size
3.5 Sample Technique
3.6 Validity And Reliability Of Measuring Instrument
3.7 Method Of Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA

4.1 Introduction
4.2 Presentation Of Data
4.3 Analysis Of Data
4.4 Interpretation Of Results
4.5 References

CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1 Introduction
5.2 Summary Of Findings
5.3 Conclusion
5.4 Recommendations
References
Questionnaires

Chapter One
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1.0 INTRODUCTION
Federation demands boththe horizontal and vertical interaction of the various levels of government, namely the federal, state and local levels. Thus in a federal arrangements like Nigeria, Intergovernmental relations (IGR) appears to focus attention on major discernible issues, notably the increasing recognition of the importance of smooth and effective management of complex political system and equally the need to manage the inside array of transactions among consistent bodies (Okafor 2005). A federal political arrangement specifies a decision of governmental powers between the national government and constituent units and such a decision is usually specified in the constitution.

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
There is usually a mistaken assumption that Intergovernmental relation (IGR) can be discussed on meaningfully in the content of a federal arrangement. This is the view of graves who says that (IGR) is surrounding with federalism but the actual fact “IGR” encompassed more than is chiefly on nation state relationship with occasional attention to Intergovernmental relations can be delineated in a unitary state. These are (National –local relations, inter-local relations and external relations).
The term Intergovernmental relations is common used to refer to relations between central, regional and local government as well as movement between any one phere (level) that facilitates the attainment of common goals, through cooperation Opeskin 2009, used in t he sense mechanism for Intergovernmental relation maybe seen as employing consensual tools for the mutual benefit of the constituents units of the state for vetrder waldt and Dutort 2009 Intergovernmental relation refers to the mutual relation and interaction between government institutions of horizontal and vertical levels. This is in line with thormhill 2010 definitions that Intergovernmental relations consists of actions and transactions politicians and officials in national, sub-national units of government and organs of the state. the foreigne are in line with the relationship between government and subordinate units hence defined Intergovernmental as the interaction that takes place in the or among the levels of government within a state. Crusial to this relation among sphere of government are statutory bodies legislative backing and non- statutory bodies (constituted by government for special task) as this can promote Intergovernmental relations in the form of committees, boards of a range of other bodies, kaye Thornhills abd forine, 2011, Hight 2008 defined Intergovernmental relation as an interaction network of institution at national provincial and local levels, created and refined to enable the various parts of government to cooperate in a manner which is appropriate to its institutional arrangements. In this view, Obi 2004 sees Intergovernmental to mean the complex pattern of interactions cooperation and inter-dependence between two or more levels of government is further described as a plethora of forma and informal relationship and transaction that develop among levels of government within a nation state. In Nigeria for instance, it refers to the interaction that exists among the federal (central or national) state and local government, state and state interactions. All these put together refers to the pattern of v relations.
An Intergovernmental relation system therefore consist of facilitative system and relationship that enables the unit of government to participate effectively and carryout mandate so that governmental goals are achieved. This include executive mechanism, coordination mechanism, cooperative agreements, judicial and legislative mechanism that all facilitates delivery by government mechanism. The aim of Intergovernmental relations therefore is to enable governmental activities (Primary source deliver) through surveyor effectiveness and efficiency in delivering services to sustain democratic and delivery across all pheres of government for the common good (Isumina 2010). Flovino from the above, Intergovernmental relations can be described as the interactions that takes place among the different levels of government within a state usually the concept is associated with stated having a federal administrative system . this however, does not in any way suggest that Intergovernmental relation do not take place in a unitary system. Ina federal system however, where the relation between the federal central or national government and the major sub-national units (province region or state) are formally spelt out in the constitution any re-arrangement must be through a constitutional amendment involving all the levels of government although the emphasis is the analysis of Intergovernmental relation is on federal state relations shows/diverse relations with respect to a federal state through nine types of relations are dissemble these are federal-state-loca-federal-civi groups and Okafor 2004).
Federalism as a system of government is not easily managed world over because of the differences that exists between independent states that form the federation. However, some countries like the United states of America, Australia, Canada, among others haveb managed their federal state local affairs coordinate no matter the problem they face Nigeria is not an exception of other federal system faced with management problems of affairs of its federal principles Nigerian federal situation is prune to competitions, tensions and conflicts insight from its introduction in 2009 to date due to structure for domination by the ethnic elements in the country (Wright 2012). Intergovernmental relations do not just imply between different government organs but involves both the citizens and governmental institutions. Agencies and officials at various levels of government operations. It is very difficult for the policy by keeping it isolated from the effect and impact of the other governmental agencies in existence at different.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Like all federal system, Nigeria’s federalism since its adoption has been operation in both fiscal and political context consists of the mode of exploration and distribution of resources while the political context relates to puttino in place appropriate structures that would facilitates the self realization of component units. It has been noted that financial subordinates of units or markets inequality between the, in terms of wealth, population and land mass constitute potent distablishing factors in federalism and make an end of federalism (Wheare, 2012, Awa 2014).
In the fiscal context, there is no doubt that profound conflict exists among the component units of the Nigeria federation at inception of the system, there was a brok devolution of power of the regions equally, each region endgeers considerable autonomy over its internal affairs in addition to having a regionally police force and civil service but in terms of relative distribution, the principle of derivation occupied a significant place the distribution formuar.
The derivation remained a major emphasis in federal revenue allocation between 2012 and 2015 when the military look over hardship of the country. The Nigeria federal situation over the years have been power tussle between the different tiers of government within the Nigeria policy due to diversities almost in all ramification of cultural regions, social and national environment to mention a few from its origin in 2009. These tussles in other to get the lion share of the natural cake by the federation units have resulted to competitions, tensions and conflicts that have threatened the survival of Nigeria as a nation. As there are inses of marginalization, deprivation and unemployment of some parts by other parts which eventually led to the hesitation for control of resources and practice of the federalism in Nigeria.

1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
This study is intended to critically investigate into the root causes of the uncordial Intergovernmental relations between the different tiers of government that have led to the power tussles between ethnical groups within the Nigerian nation.
1. To identify the major course of dispute between the federal and state government.
2. To examine the extent to which federal government control on state government militate against its development.
3. To ascertain if the revenue allocation formular is justifiable.
4. To proffer solutions to the causes of uncordial Intergovernmental relations between different tiers of government.
5. To compare the policies of the militants and cinlians administration and Intergovernmental relations and indentify the difference between the two (2).
6. The revenue allocation formula a major problem of Nigeria Intergovernmental relations

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION
1. In what areas has the federal control or state government affected bayelsa state government initiatives in socio-economic and political development?
2. Do the federal government/Bayelsa state government follow the pattern of relationship designed 2007 constitution?
3. What are the factors militating against federal state government relationship in Nigeria?

1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The importance of this study is to Nigeria individual and government who are either students or are agents of government engaged in the management of government activities. The reason there shoud be done that way is because it will reveal hidden details of how the Nigeria federalism was formed and why there are struggle for domination in the Nigeria federal situation. Furthermore, this work have put forward ingredient for the restriction of the Nigeria federal system in order to avoid competitions, tensions and conflicts that have engoulf Nigeria over the years.

1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study of federalism and Intergovernmental relations will focus on examining the nature and challenges of tussles in other to act the lion share of the national cake and power tussle will be solved. This research is contain by so many factors. The distance to the study makes it difficult for investigation, financial and other logistical inadequacies also constitute some constraints. However, the overcome these huddles by relying heavily on already published literatures both ward and soft copies. Questionnaires, interviews and other data were conducted and gotten offline and online using various social network, email and through other convenient method of data collection.

1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
Its obvious that only research work suffers challenges. These study is no exception in this connections a gfew limitations have risen like inadequate financing and lack of time to carryout much detail of this work which is no doubt are immediately beyond solution but not in any way affecting the validity of the fact that these are being generated from only incompetence in terms of Intergovernmental relations and implementation by the body concrete. This is because of the quality of material resources available to the researcher which may not be able to accommodate a more ambition and expensive coverage.
However, this limitation does not in any ways detract from the relevance and validity of the findings in respect of the organization and the real potential for extrapolating these finding to similar factors.

1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
In this section, some used terms which are related to study such as government, relations, federalism etc are defined.
Government: The act of governing, exercising authority or the study of governments of states and other political units, politics, political science.
Relations: An apstratcion belonging to characteristics of two entities or past together or mutual dealings or connections or community among persons or groups.
Federalism: The idea of a federal organization of more or less self government units

REFERENCES
Opeskin, D. (2009). The Reform of Intergovernmental Fiscal relations in developing and emerging market economies.
Vand der waldt and Du toit (2009). Managing for excellence in the public sector sector. Cape town Ojuta and co.
Thormhill C. (2010). An Overview of IGR in South Africa. South em Africa Development Community (SADC) Pretoria SAFPUMP Publishers.
Adamolekums (2008). Public administration: A Nigeria and Comparative Lagos: Longman Books.
(2009) Public Administration in Africa, Main issues and selected country cases. United kingdom.
Wright (2008) Understanding Intergovernmental relations. California Books. cole Publishing company.
(2011) Democracy and federalism in the United states of America: Intergovernmental patterns politics and perspective.
Obi (2004) Modern Local government practice in Nigeria, amogu. Leta (Digo) Limited.
Isioma (2010) Stemothenino Intergovernmental relations for improved service Developing in South Africa. Issues for consideration Journal of US-China public Administration.
Okafor (2004) Politics of Intergovernmental relations in Nigeria’s in Arts and sovial sciences forum journal. A journal of the National Association for the promotion of studies in Arts and social sciences.
Wright (2012) Intergovernmental patterns, politics and perspective in Abonsade, O and Mind + R (eds) local government in Nigeria and the United states.

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Chapter Two
Chapter two of this Intergovernmental Relations And The Practice Of Federalism In Nigeria” research work is available. Order full work to download. Chapter Two of “Intergovernmental Relations And The Practice Of Federalism In Nigeria Contains: Literature Review, Introduction, Characteristics Of Inter-Governmental Relations, Models Of Intergovernmental Relations, Institutions And Process Of (Igr), Statutory Agencies, Model And Dynamics Of The Relationship At The Local Government Levels In Nigeria, Intergovernmental Fiscal Relations And Conclusion.
Chapter Three
Chapter three of this Intergovernmental Relations And The Practice Of Federalism In Nigeria” academic work is available. Order full work to download. Chapter Three of “Intergovernmental Relations And The Practice Of Federalism In Nigeria" Contains: Research Design, Methodology, Introduction, Source/Methods Of Data Collection, Population And Sample Size, Sample Technique, Validity And Reliability Of Measuring Instrument And Method Of Data Analysis.
Chapter Four
Chapter four of this Intergovernmental Relations And The Practice Of Federalism In Nigeria project work is available. Order full work to download. Chapter Four of Intergovernmental Relations And The Practice Of Federalism In Nigeria Contains: Presentation Data, Analysis Of Data, Introduction, Interpretation Of Results And References.
Chapter Five
Chapter five of this Intergovernmental Relations And The Practice Of Federalism In Nigeria material is available. Order full work to download. Chapter Five of Intergovernmental Relations And The Practice Of Federalism In Nigeria Contains: Summary, Conclusion, Recommendation, Introduction, References And Questionnaires.