Reference/Citation Guides

The following are the most popular citation styles:

  • American Psychological Association (APA). APA is an author/date based style. This placed emphasis on the author and the date of a piece of work.
  • Modern Language Association (MLA). MLA is most often applied by the arts and humanities department, mainly in the USA. .
  • Harvard. Harvard is very similar to APA. It is the most well used referencing style in the UK and Australia.

The American Psychological Association (APA) Referencing Style

The APA style requires two elements:

(a) in-text citations
(b) a reference list at the end.

(a) In-text citations

The following information about a source within the text of your project assignment should be included:

  1. the name of the author or authors
  2. the year of publication
  3. the page number

Citations may be placed at the end of a sentence in brackets - before punctuation.

Paraphrase of the source - in your own words:

Example:

...ask the buyer to clarify the objection, questions the buyer in a way that the buyer has answer his or own objection, denies the validity of the objective, or turns the objection into a reaction for buying (P. Kotler 2000 P.638).

Pita Ejiofor (1987) sees interaction as a motivational factor that should not be ignored.

Quotation - exact words from the source

Broudy (1998, p. 9) believes that “on the common criteria for schooling, our sample citizen has failed because he cannot replicate the necessary skill or apply the relevant principles”.

(b) At the end: References

Include a list of References at the end of the project. A single list of all the sources of information you have cited in your project. The reference list should begin on a new page titled “References”. Centre the title on the page. Each entry should have a hanging indent.

Each reference list item requires specific bibliographic information such as:

  • author/editor
  • year of publication
  • title
  • edition
  • place of publication and
  • publisher

Example : Kappel, K. (1960). Vitality in Business Enterprise, New York, McGraw Hill.

Martin R.W. & and James F.E. (1990). Promotional Strategy 6th ed., (USA: Richard D.
Irwin Inc.)

  1. List each item in alphabetical order (by author surname).
  2. Titles should be in italics.
  3. All of the references included in the list must also be cited in the text.

When to include page numbers
When you quote a source (reproduce material word for word), page numbers are required to help the reader locate the information in a long text. Though, page number is not a ‘compulsory’ requirement.

The Harvard Referencing Style

HOW TO CITE/REFERENCE A WEBSITE IN HARVARD STYLE

(a) In-text citation

The following information about a source within the text of your assignment must be included:

(Author Surname, Year Published )

Example

...recognizes just five stages preparation, prospecting, and pre approach, presentation, and post sales activities. (Stanton,1981)

(b) At the end: References

Include a list of References at the end of the assignment. A single list of all the sources of information you have cited in your assignment.

The reference list should begin on a new page titled “References”.

Each reference list item requires specific bibliographic information such as: Author Surname, Author Initial. (Year Published). Title. ed. City: Publisher, p.Pages Used.

Example:

Pitt, C. and Smith, J. (2012). Pro PHP MVC. Berkeley, CA: Apress, pp.3-4.

HOW TO CITE/REFERENCE A WEBSITE IN HARVARD STYLE

(a) In-text citation

The following information about a source within the text of your assignment must be included:

(Author Surname, Year Published)

Example: income statement has several indicators (canaries) that will telegraph early warning signs well before the company starts to lose money or the bank balance starts to drop precariously low. (Tester, 2014)

(b) At the end: References

Each reference list item requires specific bibliographic information such as:

Author Surname, Author Initial. (Year Published). Title. [online] Available at: http://Website URL [Accessed Date Accessed].

Example: Tester, J. (2014). EZproxy. [online] Eds.a.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liv.ac.uk. Available at: http://eds.a.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liv.ac.uk/eds/detail?sid=fa9392f5-3794-4dd7-a8bc-0f2d5915a373%40sessionmgr4005&vid=4&hid=4110[Accessed 21 Jun. 2014].

HOW TO CITE/REFERENCE A JOURNAL IN HARVARD STYLE

(a) In-text citation

The following information about a source within the text of your assignment must be included:

(Author Surname, Year Published)

Example: This process is not new – Indonesian women in hijabs had their veils torn off in Australia during the 1991 Gulf War – but it has been greatly exacerbated since September 11. (Poynting, 2006)

(b) At the end: References

Each reference list item requires specific bibliographic information such as:

Author Surname, Author Initial. (Year Published). Title. Publication Title, [online] Volume number(Issue number), p.Pages Used. Available at: http://Website URL [Accessed Date Accessed].

Example: Poynting, S. (2006). What caused the Cronulla riot?. Race \& Class, 48(1), pp.85--92.

MLA Modern Language Association (MLA) Referencing Style

(a) In-text citation - Single Author

With in-text citations, you acknowledge a source by providing a brief reference to exactly where in the source you found the information. The reader can then use the complete reference listed in the Works Cited page at the end of your paper to verify what you have written.

The following information about a source within the text of your assignment must be included:

(the author's last name and a page number)

Example: ... questions the buyer in a way that the buyer has answer his or own objection, denies the validity of the objective, or turns the objection into a reaction for buying (Kotler 638).

If you mention the author’s name in your text, only the page reference needs to be inserted in parentheses.

Example: According to Postman, broadcast news influences the decision-making process (51-63).

In-text citations - Multiple authors

If there are two authors, include the last name of each.

Example: (Henry and Harry 176)

If there are 3 or more authors, include the last name of the first author followed by "et al." without any intervening punctuation.

Example: (Baldwin et al. 200)

(b) At the end: References

Include an alphabetical list of works cited that appears at the end of your assignment. A single list of all the sources of information you have cited in your assignment, allowing readers to refer to them, when needed. The reference list should begin on a new page titled “References”.

The alphabetical list of works cited that appears at the end of your paper contains more information about all of the sources you've cited, allowing readers to refer to them, as needed.

The main characteristics are:

  1. Reference must be on a new page at the end of your assignment
  2. Texts are arranged alphabetically by the author's last name or by the title if there is no author
  3. Titles of books are italicized and titles of articles are placed in quotation marks
  4. All important words should be capitalized
  5. Entries are double-spaced
  6. For online sources, date of access is an optional element.

Citing Book with 1 author

Last Name, First Name. Title. Publisher, Year of Publication.

Example: Mumford, Lewis. The Culture of Cities. Harcourt, 1938.

Citing Book with 2 authors

First Author’s Last Name, First Author’s First Name, and Second Author’s First and Last Names. Title. Publisher, Year of Publication.

Example: Ormerod, Neil, and Christiaan Jacobs-Vandegeer. Foundational Theology. Fortress Press, 2015.

Citing Book with 3 or more authors

First Author’s Last Name, First Author’s First Name, et al. Title. Publisher, Year of Publication.

Example: Francis, R. Douglas, et al. Destinies: Canadian History since Confederation. Harcourt, 2000.

Citing Article in a journal:

Last Name, First Name. “Article Title.” Title of Journal, vol. #, no. #, Month/Season Year, pp. <page range>.

Example: Ferrer, Ada. "Cuba 1898: Rethinking Race, Nation, and Empire." Radical History Review, vol. 73, Winter 1999, pp. 22-49.

Citing Article retrieved from a library database:

Provide the same information as you would for a printed journal article and add the name of the database in italics, and include the URL or doi to the article.

Example: Wolfensberger, Donald R. “Happy Together?” The Wilson Quarterly, vol. 33, no. 1, Winter 2009, pp. 63-66. JSTOR, jstor.org/stable/40262243.

Citing Article in a newspaper or magazine:

Last Name, First Name. “Article Title.” Title of Newspaper or Magazine, Date, <page range>.

Examples: Semenak, Susan. "Feeling Right at Home: Government Residence Eschews Traditional Rules." Montreal Gazette, 28 Dec. 1995, A4.

Driedger, Sharon Doyle. "After Divorce." Maclean's, 20 Apr. 1998, pp. 38-43.

Citing An entire website:

Last Name, First Name. Title of Website. Date, URL.
Example: Linder, Douglas O. Famous Trials. 2009, law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/ftrials.htm.

Citing a page on a Web site:

An entry for a nonperiodical item found on the Web contains the following:
Last Name, First Name. "Document Title if Available." Title of the Overall Web site, Date, URL.
Example: "Joyce Wieland." Celebrating Women's Achievements: Women Artists in Canada, 2000, collectionscanada.gc.ca/women/030001-1173-e.html. Accessed 29 Mar. 2004.

Citing Social media posts:

Author. “Full text of post.” Name of Social Media Website, Date, Time, URL.

Twitter example: @jk_rowling. “God, I hate this stuff. I’ve winged it my whole life. I’ve messed up regularly. There are no rules. Do your thing.” Twitter, 12 June 2016, 10:03 a.m., twitter.com/jk_rowling/status/742039536688107520.

Instagram example: @montreal. “Doux lundi // Peaceful Monday Photo par / by @susanmossphotography #MTLmoments #MTL #montreal.” Instagram, 13 June 2016, 5:40 a.m., instagram.com/p/BGmFK7Ny9TF/?hl=en.

 

Citing Emails

Author of email. “Subject.” Received by Recipient Name, Date.
Example: Bélanger, Suzanne. “Travaux de Construction.” Received by Ravi Vishnaj, 9 Feb. 2016.

 

Citing television or radio program:

“Episode Title.” Program Title, created by Creator Name, performance[s] by Performer Name[s], season #, episode #, Network, Date.
Example: “Blax, Snake, Home.” Happy Endings, created by David Caspe, performance by Elisha Cuthbert, season 2, episode 1, ABC, 28 Sept. 2011.

 

Citing Untitled sources:

Creator. Description. Year/Range of Years, Museum, Place.
Example: Savage & Lyman Co. Brooch and earrings. About 1845, McCord Museum, Montreal.

Samples of References

SAMPLE ONE
Adiele M.A (1975) An introduction to the philosophy of education:
                     Enugu: Side by side press Ltd.

Amahala A.O (1984) Colonial control and education: The
                     development of Higher education in Nigeria 1900 – 1950, Journal of the
                     Historical society of Nigerians.  Vol. Vi, No 3 December 1984.

Aneke s.n. (2004) Experience and Education Enugu: Hon Jacobs
                     classic publishers Ltd.

Bellack W. (1964) The history of Western education. New York:
                     Harper and Row Publishers Ire (10th Edition)

Eme Awa (1988) Psychology in the classroom- Enugu – Jeo Best
                     press Ltd.

Freire F. (1971) Principles of education for teachers in Africa –
                     London: Oxford university press ltd.

 

SAMPLE TWO
Okerie, O. A. (1993), Computer Fundamental, Solid Rock Aba,
                     Ist Edition Pg 37.


Otal, P. H. (1988), Data Processing, An Instruction Manual for
                     Information System. DP Publication, Pg 11.


James, A. O. (1990), Management Information System; USA, Hill
                     Publishers Inc Page 16


Mark Swank and Drew Killed (1997), Web Database Developer’s
                     Guide, Sam.net Publishing Indianapolis, USA.


Mark Spenik (1997), Using Foot page 2000, USA, Mc Graw Hill
                     book Company, USA.


Lawrence, N. L. (2001), Vbscript Tutor, USA, Microsoft Press USA,
                     USA.


Mbam, B. C. (1999), Design and Programming of Internet Web
                     Sites; APractical approach COAN proceeding 1999, Vol. 10, Pages 67 – 74.


Dr. Sanyo, O. (1999), Building your own personal Web Page: Micro
                     byte Magazine June (1999), Vol. 3, Page 15 – 17.