Phytochemical Analysis And The Anti-Inflammatory Activities Of Dichloromethane Fraction Of Methanol Extract Of Crateva Adansonii

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You are reading project material titled: Phytochemical Analysis And The Anti-Inflammatory Activities Of Dichloromethane Fraction Of Methanol Extract Of Crateva Adansonii

Abstract
Inflammation is a complex biological response of vascular tissue to harmful stimuli such as pathogen, damage cells or irritants (Ryan & Majno, 1983). The urgency generated by increased rate of stroke, atherosclerosis attribute due to prolonged use of cyclooxygenase-1 and Cyclooxygenase- 2 inhibitors have accelerated anti-inflammatory drug research over the last decade while synthetic pharmaceutical agents continued to dominate research (Ryan & Majno, 1983). Attention increasingly has been directed to natural products. These are often more affordable and available and sometimes are perceived as more effective than conventional anti- inflammatory drugs.
Anti-inflammation was carried out using 12 rats which was divided into three groups of 4 rats each. Group 1 and 2 served as the negative and positive control respectively. Group 3 received 25mg/kg b.w. of the dichloromethane fraction of methanol extract of
Crateva adansonii showed significance anti-inflammatory activity when compared with the standard difference used.
Table of Content
Title Page
Certification
Dedication
Acknowledgement
Abstract
Table Of Content

CHAPTER ONE
1.1 INTRODUCTION

1.2 Crateva Adansonii As A Plant
1.3 Research Aim And Objectives

CHAPTER TWO
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0 Definition Of Inflammation
2.1 Characteristics Of Inflammation
2.2 Classes Of Inflammation
2.3 Types Of Inflammation
2.4 Chemical Mediators Of Inflammation
2.4.0 Properties Of Mediators
2.4.1 Histamine
2.4.2 Serotonin (5- Hydroxy Tryptamine)
2.4.3 Cytokines
2.4.4 Arachidonic Acid
2.4.5 Platelet Activating Factor (PAF)
2.4.6 Free Radicals
2.4.6.1 Nitric Oxide (NO)
2.4.6.2 Oxygen-Derived Free Radicals
2.4.7.0 Complement System
2.4.7.1 The Clotting System/Coagulation System
2.4.7.2 The Kinin System
2.4.7.3 The Fibrinolytic System
2.5.0 Anti-Inflammatory Agents
2.5.1 Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDS)
2.5.1.0 Mechanism Of Action Of NSAIDS
2.5.2 Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs

CHAPTER THREE
3.0 MATERIAL AND METHODS

3.1 Materials
3.1.1 Equipment/Apparatus Used
3.1.2 Chemical, Solvents And Reagents
3.1.3 Animals
3.2 Methodology
3.2.1 Collection And Preparation Of Plant Materials
3.2.2 Extraction
3.3 Fractionation
3.3.1 Gel Column Chromatography
3.4. Identification Of Phytochemical Groups In The Extract
3.4.1 Preparation Of Reagents For Phytochemical Analysis
3.4.2 Qualitative Phytochemical Analysis Of The Extract
3.5 Thin Layer Chromatography
3.6 Anti-Inflammatory Activity Test.

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 RESULT

CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 DISCUSSION

Conclusion
References
Appendixes

Chapter One
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INTRODUCTION AIM AND OBJECTIVES
Inflammation is one of body’s natural ways of protecting itself. It is also an essential reaction of the body to infection. Too little of an inflammatory response, and the body is unable to repel microbial invasions or heal injuries. Too much of an inflammatory response, and the immune system begins attacking the body’s own organs eventually leading to chronic disease (Sears, 2000).
Anti-Inflammatory refers to the property of a substance or treatment that reduces inflammation. There are obvious clinical markers of inflammation which include pain, redness, fever, swelling and loss of function (Pai et al. 2004). However if inflammation is allowed to continue unchecked it may results in neurodegenerative disease or cancer (Pai et al. 2004). A variety of safe and effective anti-inflammatory agents are available including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroids.
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID are usually indicated for the treatment of acute and chronic inflammation. NSAIDS work by reducing the production of prostaglandins (Bayness & Marek, 2005). Prostaglandins are chemicals that promote inflammation, pain and fever. The enzymes that produce prostaglandins are phospholipaseA2, PGH2synthase and Cyclooxygenase (Cox). There are two types of COX enzymes, cyclooxygenase-1 (Cox-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2). NSAIDS reduce the production of prostaglandin by inhibiting COX enzymes resultant effect is that, therefore, inflammation, pain and fever are reduced. Some herbs and plants possess anti-inflammatory and they include:
S/No
Common
Name
Botanical
Name
Andiroba oil
Carapa
guianensis
It is rich in omega-3 fatty acids that promote skin healing from cuts and may slow growth of skin cells in psoriasis and age spots. It relieves pain and swelling
Alfalfa
Medicago sativa L.
It serves as an oxidant in the blood stream. They are staple of salads and contain nutrient, the leaves hold the best healing potential and contain phytoestrogens that could be beneficial in menopausal and breast feeding women.
Aloe Vera Gel
Aloe vera
The leaf juices of the aloe plant have important medicinal uses. It stimulates collagen synthesis and skin regeneration after a burn; it helps heal acne, improve the appearance of wrinkles and hydrate damaged skin.
Apple
Malus domestica
Other names include apple cider vinegar, wine vinegar. The best of the medicinal compounds are contained in the apple peel. It helps in relieving arthritis, apple contains malic and tartaric acids, salts of potassium, sodium, magnesium and iron.
Copyright © 2005-2013
Annie’s Remedy (Anniesremedy.com).
Crateva adansonii belonging to the family Capparacea and phylum Magnoliophyta is small tree of forest and
savanna woodland, often on river-banks, widely distributed in Nigeria and across Africa. The leaves are applied externally to relieve pain in joint, the fresh juice of leaves is used for the relief of ear-ache, eye infection and anodyne in toothache. Powder of bark is used in rheumatism, itch, epilepsy and asthma (Sivarajan & Balachandran, 1994).

1.2 Crateva adansonii as a plant
The flowering tree Crateva adansonii is called the sacred garlic pear and temple plant. The tree is sometimes called the spider tree because the showy flowers bear long, spidery stamens. It is native to Japan, Australia, much of south East Asia and several south pacific Islands. It grows in forest and savanna woodland, often on river-banks from Senegal to N Nigeria, and across Africa to Zaire, Tanganyika and Madagascar. The plants common name is amakarode in Igbo, In Yoruba, it is egun-orun and in Hausa, it is ungududu. The tree
attains approximately 15m height. The trunk is irregular, seldom straight, but is worthy of cultivation as an ornamental for its dense masses of white flowers borne at the ends of all the shoots. In the bush, owing to grass burning which it survives and repeated stripping of its leaves, the tree is often stunted. The wood is soft and yellow and strong-smelling when cut. The leaves are however eaten in soups or mixed with cereals. They are boiled and added to mixture called in Hausa “Kwado” containing a paste of locust beans, Parkia Spp. (Leguminosae Mimisoideae). The Yoruba consumes the leaves as a potherb.
In upper volt they are the ingredient of sauces. To some people the leaves are taken only in time of dearth and they are sold in northern markets. The bark is widely used for stomach-troubles in Nigeria. In Jebel Marra a bark-paste is used as a poultice on swellings.
Crateva adansonii is a decidious plant with three-palmate leaves. The leaves are arranged opposite one
another. They are elliptic with entire margins. The flowers are pale green. The plants bloom from March to May. The flowers are arranged in racemes. The fruits are berries. It can withstand temperatures above 1oc and 2oc (Burkill, 1985).
Taxonomy
Family: Capparaceae
Genus: Crateva
Species: Crateva adansonii DC
Phylum/Division: Magnoliophyta
Sub division: Magnoliophytina
Classes: Rosopsida
Sub class: Dilleniidae
Super order: Violanae
Order: Capparales
The medicinal effect of Crateva adansonii plant bark is includes general healing, leprosy, stomach troubles. For the leaf, it is used in eye treatments, liver, for leaf; a pain-killer, for roots, dropsy, swellings, edema, gout,
veneral diseases. Powder of bark is used in rheumatism, itch, epilepsy and asthma.

1.3 Research Aim and Objectives
Aim:
To study the anti-inflammatory effect of dichloromethane fraction extracts from Crateva adansonii on rats.
Objectives:
i) To determine the anti-inflammatory effect of Crateva adansonii extracts in methanol on rats.
ii) To determine the phytochemicals present in Crateva adansonii extract in methanol on rats.


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Chapter Two
Chapter two of this Phytochemical Analysis And The Anti-Inflammatory Activities Of Dichloromethane Fraction Of Methanol Extract Of Crateva Adansonii” research work is available. Order full work to download. Chapter Two of “Phytochemical Analysis And The Anti-Inflammatory Activities Of Dichloromethane Fraction Of Methanol Extract Of Crateva Adansonii Contains: Literature Review, Definition Of Inflammation, Characteristics Of Inflammation, Classes Of Inflammation, Types Of Inflammation, Chemical Mediators Of Inflammation, Properties Of Mediators, Histamine, Serotonin (5- Hydroxy Tryptamine), Cytokines, Arachidonic Acid, Platelet Activating Factor (Paf), Free Radicals, Nitric Oxide (No), Oxygen-Derived Free Radicals, Complement System, The Clotting System/Coagulation System, The Kinin System, The Fibrinolytic System, Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (Nsaids), Mechanism Of Action Of Nsaids And Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs.
Chapter Three
Chapter three of this Phytochemical Analysis And The Anti-Inflammatory Activities Of Dichloromethane Fraction Of Methanol Extract Of Crateva Adansonii” academic work is available. Order full work to download. Chapter Three of “Phytochemical Analysis And The Anti-Inflammatory Activities Of Dichloromethane Fraction Of Methanol Extract Of Crateva Adansonii" Contains: Material And Methods, Materials, Equipment/Apparatus Used, Chemical, Solvents And Reagents, Animals, Methodology, Collection And Preparation Of Plant Materials, Extraction, Fractionation, Gel Column Chromatography, Identification Of Phytochemical Groups In The Extract, Preparation Of Reagents For Phytochemical Analysis, Qualitative Phytochemical Analysis Of The Extract, Thin Layer Chromatography And Anti-Inflammatory Activity Test.
Chapter Four
Chapter four of this Phytochemical Analysis And The Anti-Inflammatory Activities Of Dichloromethane Fraction Of Methanol Extract Of Crateva Adansonii project work is available. Order full work to download. Chapter Four of Phytochemical Analysis And The Anti-Inflammatory Activities Of Dichloromethane Fraction Of Methanol Extract Of Crateva Adansonii Contains: Result.
Chapter Five
Chapter five of this Phytochemical Analysis And The Anti-Inflammatory Activities Of Dichloromethane Fraction Of Methanol Extract Of Crateva Adansonii material is available. Order full work to download. Chapter Five of Phytochemical Analysis And The Anti-Inflammatory Activities Of Dichloromethane Fraction Of Methanol Extract Of Crateva Adansonii Contains: Discussion, Conclusion, References And Appendixes.