Production Of Plastic Materials

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Abstract
Generally, plastic is defined as long-chain organic material which can be formed into desired shape by the application of heat and pressure, also it extends to include so many organic metallic complexes and also certain long-chain inorganic material based principally on silicon, phosphorus, nitrogen, aluminum or boron or mixtures of these. It is still however true to say that the bulk of current commercial plastic are modified organic chemical, and that the inorganic polymers and the organic-metallic are limited in production and used only for special purpose .plastic form a group of high polymers which have a fair range of deformability and mould ability particularly at high temperature. In plastic, the polymer formed doesn’t have the same molecular weight and since the polymer are not amenable to the ordinary method of separation. Injection molding process, of all other process such as, calendaring, casting, forming, expanding, coating decorating etc, was used because of its applicability in the production of several different types of products. It also reduces loses due to mouilding. The process involves the use of automated injection machine which consist of two major part: injection section and clamping section . The injection section consist of the section pump which enable the feed (pellets of mixed co-polymer raw material and the colours) to be introduce into the feed hopper. It also has the hopper part that allows the fed pellets to enter into the ram chamber where it is pushed into the heating cylinder where the pellets are melted in the presence of high heat generated by the electric heat. The movement of torpedo backward and forward aids the inlet of the pellets, as it goes forward. On moving backward, the molten plastic enters the injection nozzle which pushes the molten plastic into the mould which is detachable, and also attachable depending on the type of product to be produced. The mould is aided with a cooling film that allows the molten molded plastic to be cooled, and formed the shape of the mould.
The shaped molton plastic could come in form of either a seat, table, bucket, cup etc. the products will have some durable characteristics such as colour retainability, because of the anti-ultravident rays added to oppose the action of the ultra violent rays from the sun that causes the colour fade in some plastic. Several other additives were added such as plasticizers, extenders, lubricants, stabilizers, fillers, pigments and other miscellaneous additives, so as to obtain the best qualities such as flexibility, smooth, electric insulation and strength. The cost of this production is quite enormous considering the cost of raw materials and the colours, the cost of all the additives, the cost of the injection machines and moulds and other costs such as: transportation, installation of the machine, electricity and other overhead costs. Research cost and labour costs are not overhead. Utility cost (water, power and fuel) are also included.
Due to the liquid qualities introduce, such as machinability, low density, durability even in the presence of sun and chemicals, high creeping factor resistance even in the presence of heat, its inability to crack and graze in the presence of stress from environmental and its considerable strength, we affirm that the product is of high rating.
Table of Content
Title Page
Letter Of Transmittal
Dedication
Acknowledgement
Abstract
Table Of Content

Chapter One
1.0 Introduction

1.1 What Are Plastics
1.2 Types Of Plastics

Chapter Two
2.0 Literature Review

2.1 Plastic Fabrication
2.1.0. Molding
2.1.2. Rotational Molding
2.1.3. Thermo Set Molding
2.1.4. Thermoforming
2.1.5. Laminating And Low – Pressure Molding
2.2. Compression Moulding
2.2.4. Transfer Moulding
2.2.5. Injection Moulding
2.3. Extrusion
2.4. Calendaring
2.5. Casting
2.5.4. Film Casting
2.5.5. Simple Casting
2.5.6. Hol-Melt Casting
2.5.7. Slush Casting

Chapter Three
3.0 Experimental Methodology

3.1 Machine Section
3.1.1 Power Section
3.2 The Injection Section
3.3 The Clamping Section
3.4 Summary Of The Entire Process
3.5 Notable Safety Information’s Before Using The Machine

Chapter Four
4.0 Experimental Result

4.1 Mechanical Properties
4.2 Chemical Properties
4.3 Optical Properties
4.4 Electrical Properties
4.5 Thermal Properties
4.6 Other Properties Include

Chapter Five
5.0 Cost Evaluation

5.1 Manufacturing Cost
5.2. General Expenses
5.3 Total Production Cost
5.4 Unit Estimation

Chapter Six
6.0 Discussion

Chapter Seven
7.0 Conclusion/Recommendation

Chapter One
Chapter One of Production Of Plastic Materials Project Material starts from here.

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INTRODUCTION
Before the advent of synthetic plastics, most forms of construction and production were dependent upon the use of natural materials such as metal, wood, rubber, tar and various minerals. These materials are still very much in evidence today, but in many instances they have been replaced by the new wonder materials called PLASTICS. Through the magic of the chemist, we now have plastics that can meet almost every engineering requirement.
The first man-made plastic was nitrocellulose. It was developed by chemist in both America and Europe who had been trying to find new uses for cellulose, the basic substances for wood and cotton. They finally succeeded in synthesizing the new chemical by treating the cotton fibres with nitric acid. In 1970, a young painter named John Wesley Hyatt and his brother Isaiah added camphor to nitrocellulose to form the first commercially successful plastic, which they called celluloid. The new materials were used to make combs, bashes, photographic film, and early automobile windows and safety glass. But celluloid has two inherent weaknesses that have severely curtailed its use in modern times.
i. It is highly flammable.
ii. In the form of clear film, it yellows upon aging.
The second plastic to appear on the market was called Bakelite. It was developed by Dr Leo Baekland in 1909. Dr Baekeland had been searching for a synthetic coating material to replace shellacs. He began experimenting with two chemicals, phenol and formaldehyde, the two was combined with catalyst to form the new material. Bakelite was also used for moulding, casting, adhesive bunching and electrical insulation.

WHAT ARE PLASTICS?
Most plastics are man-made materials with the ability to flow, take shape and solidify. They are made from chemicals extracted from substances such as petroleum, coal, air, water and agricultural by-products. The production sequence starts with the manufacturer of raw materials who combines the various chemicals to form meltable solids and syrupy liquids called resins.
Unlike metals, plastics are light in weight, pleasant to touch and easy to form .complicated shapes are easily reproduced by molding , casting .because they are do not allow electricity to pass through them , they are used extensively in dielectric application . they are also poor conducts of temperature which accounts for their use as pot handles ,electric iron handles refrigerator housing and thermos bottles .
Plastics are very versatile materials .some have great optical clarity, and most can be colored in a wide range of colures shapes. one plastics ,acrylic is even clears than glass e.g. lens .because the dyes for colored plastics are mixed with the raw materials , the completed p need never be painted . Plastics surfaces are also free from the atmospheric corrosion that is prevalent with some metals .the light weight of plastics is still another advantage over metals, like polypropylenes, are lighter than water and therefore float on water.
The ability of plastics to be foamed has led to a completely new concept of lightweight construction. Rigid urethane foams are already fericling wide use in furniture and other structural applications. The strength of a rigid urethane foam panel weighing 816/ cup is something to behold, especially when one considers the fact that water weighs 62.4 upper cults. Another extraordinary development is light weight structure is the combining of plastics binders and adhesive with honey comb and farcing materials to form panels with out standing weight – to- strength ratios. Honey comb application have in waded such basic fields as transportation, architecture, illumination air craft and gaicted missiles, electronics , materials handling home appliances and instrumentation . Indeed, both the engineer and the architect are in constant search for materials that will improve economy, weight – to – strength ratio and ease of fabrication with no sacrifice in performance.
Many plastics can be coated with a thin metal film to change their appearance or meet a functional requirement bright, glossy, chromium – coated plastics are especially popular. They are difficult to distinguish from solid metal unless lifted by hand, at which time the much lighter plastics are very discernable. Pumping fixtures and toys are among the more popular applications of moralized plastics .
An important breakthrough in surgery has been the use of plastics as implantations in the human body strong, tough, Ron allergic plastics are finding increased use as replacements for effective blood vessels and other damaged parts of the body. The softer silicone rubbers are also used for implantation, but mostly for cosmetics purpose.
Plastics products are now being produced more quickly and in larger volumes, thanks to the tremulous stickles made in injection, compression and transfer molding .improved mechanization of automatic and semiautomatic machines plus improved molding materials have brought about shorter cure cycles and a reduction in handling operations.
Many plastics can be used in specialized chemical resistant application. with few exception (such as the fluorocarbons ) , most plastics materials are attacked by one or more chemicals .By careful materials selection, light weight, unbreakable plastics can be used to replace glass and stainless steel as chemical containers . In many instances, plastics have replaced stainless steel as industrial clouting used to carry away chemical vapor .
Plastics have replaced paper in many packaging applications plastics-foam packing materials provide more protection for boxed products than crushed paper does. Many products, particularly delicate electronics equipment, are packed in foamed plastics inserts that got the shape of the item exactly. Plastics wraps have many uses. They preserve foods longer than paper wraps can.
Plastics have also replaced wood and stone in many applications. Furniture makers use plastics to produce cabinet doors and table tops that look like wood but are easier to clean and do not warp . Plastics have also replaced wood in boat hulls; boats are stronger than wooden ones and require less maintenance.
The textile industry used plastics to replace such natural fibers as cotton, silk and wood. Plastic fibers have such qualities as strength; curability and resistance to stains and wrinkling .plastics are also used to create synthetic leathers

TYPES OF PLASTICS
There are two main groups of plastics:
1. thermoplastics
2. thermo set
Thermoplastics are materials that remain permanently feasible. this means that they will melt when exposed to sufficient heat . For each thermoplastic, there is a specific temperature at which the material will start to distort. this is known as the heat distortion point . Most raw materials used in the production of thermoplastics products are melt able solids in the form of granules and powders such as those used for injection molding and extrusion. They are simply heated and melted into specific shapes though thermoplastics melt readily, they do have a high melt viscosity and require pressure in addition to heat to force them into molds. The shape of the mold being produced and resolidification takes place when the mold is cooled below the heat distortion point of the materials.
Thermo set raw materials are supplied in an uncured or partially cured state and are fully cured during the fabrication operation by the action of a catalyst or other curing agent .all require a form of heat to initiate the chemical change . the heat can come from an oven ,press , lamb or in some cases , from just the curing agent alone as it reacts with the resume . Once cured, thermo sets becomes permanently infusible which means they cannot be melted down like thermoplastics and are used primarily in reinforced plastics. Inherently, they are somewhat brittle but are combined with reinforcements such as fiber glass to form composites of great strength, some even surpassing metals in a weight – to strength ratio. When a thermo set is heated, it undergoes a chemical reaction called cross- linking, which binds its polymer chains together. This reaction is similar to the hardening of an egg when it is boiled. Product made from thermosetting plastics includes pot handles, trays for sterilizing medical instruments and parts for airplanes and spacecraft. Manufactures and prefer to use thermo sets for such products as plastic seats on buses instead of thermoplastics because some thermoplastics tend to lose their shape when exposed to constant pressure over a long period of
Thermoplastics are those plastics formed by addition polymerization which is capable of repeated by softened by heat , remolded and hardened by cooling some typical thermoplastics are a acrylic (repex), acryonitrile (nylon) , polyethylene (polyethylene) , poly-propylene, polyvinyl Acetate (PVA), polystyrene
Thermo set are plastic formed by condensation polymerization which cannot be remolded by heating some typical thermo sets are bakelite , epoxy , melamine polyester ,polyurethane , phenolics amnions alkycls .Thermoplastics differs from thermo sets in that thermoplastics do not cure or set under heat but thermo sets do

ENGINEERING MATERIALS
1. Alkyds 1. acrylates 1. acetates
2. Phthalates 2. butyls 2. acrylics
3. Expoxides 3.chorosulfonafed- 3. cellylosics
4. melaminers polyethylene(hypalon) 4. chorinafed-
5. phenolics 4. fluorocarbons. polyethers
6. polysters 5. fluorosilicones 5. flurcarbons
7. urataane 6. polysulfides 6.Nylon
(rigid foams) 7. polyurethanes (polyamides)
8. silicones 8. Neoprenes 7. polycarbonate
(rigid resin) 9. Nitrates 8. polyethylene&
9. others 10. silicones polypropylenes
11. (styrene butadienes) 9. polyamides
12. others 10. polyphenylene
oxide.
11. polystremes
12. polysultones
13. vinyls
14. others.
Fig.1
Classification of engineering materials, showing polymer classes.
Reaction A: One quality of unsaturated acid heats with two qualities of glycol to yield linear polyester (alkyd) polymer units.
HO-CH2CH2-OH+HO-C -CH=CH-C -OH+HO-CH2-CH2-OH
Ethylene glycol maleacid Ethylene glycol

HO[CH2CH2-O-C-CH=CH-C-O-CH2CH2]n OH+2 H2O
Ethylene glycerol maloate polyesters
Reaction B: Polymer limits heat (coolymenze) with styrene monomor in pueseuce of catalyst and / or heat to yield styreme – polyester
(Asterisk Indicates points capable of further cross lunking)
*¬¬¬¬¬ CH2CH2-O-C-CH-CH-C-O-CH2CH¬2-*
CH2

Fig.2: Simplify diagram showing how crosslunking reaction produce polyester resin (styrene-polyester copolymer resin) from basic chemicals.

Chapter One of Production Of Plastic Materials Project Material ends here.

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Chapter Two
Chapter two of this Production Of Plastic Materials” research work is available. Order full work to download. Chapter Two of “Production Of Plastic Materials Contains: Literature Review, Plastic Fabrication, Molding, Rotational Molding, Thermo Set Molding, Thermoforming, Laminating And Low – Pressure Molding, Compression Moulding, Transfer Moulding, Injection Moulding, Extrusion, Calendaring, Casting, Film Casting, Simple Casting, Hol-Melt Casting And Slush Casting.
Chapter Three
Chapter three of this Production Of Plastic Materials” academic work is available. Order full work to download. Chapter Three of “Production Of Plastic Materials Contains: Experimental Methodology, Machine Section, Power Section, The Injection Section, The Clamping Section, Summary Of The Entire Process And Notable Safety Information’s Before Using The Machine.
Chapter Four
Chapter four of this Production Of Plastic Materials project work is available. Order full work to download. Chapter Four of Production Of Plastic Materials Contains: Experimental Result, Mechanical Properties, Chemical Properties, Optical Properties, Electrical Properties, Thermal Properties And Other Properties Include.
Chapter Five
Chapter five of this Production Of Plastic Materials material is available. Order full work to download. Chapter Five of Production Of Plastic Materials Contains: Cost Evaluation, Manufacturing Cost, General Expenses, ,Total Production Cost And Unit Estimation.
Chapter Six
Chapter six of this Production Of Plastic Materials material is available. Order full work to download. Chapter Six of “Production Of Plastic Materials Contains: Discussion.
Chapter Seven
Chapter seven of this Production Of Plastic Materials material is available. Order full work to download. Chapter Seven of “Production Of Plastic Materials Contains: Conclusion And Recommendation.