Formulation And Production Of Levera Soap

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Abstract
The production of the soap was carried out using all the necessary equipments like the reactor, mould, stirrer, hygrometer guage etc. and all the required reagents for soap production in correct proportion.
In the production, palm kernel oil (P.K.O) was used instead of tallow or grease. This was because soap produced from grease or tallow tends to dissolve slowly at room temperature, whereas, soap of palm kernel oil product gives a quicker lather which is relatively suitable.
Different formulation were developed, but the most appropriate was the ratio 2:1 of P.K.O to caustic soda solution. This ratio gave a very quality soap. The other formulation are 3:1 and 1:1 of good quality and physically, they were observed to be brittle.
The test and analysis carried out on the P.K.O and the soap produced proved that the saponification value of the P.K.O was 248.24; refractive index was 1.451, free fatty value of 1.58; acid value of 4.43; moisture content of 26.78%; free alkali of 0.214%, alcohol insoluble matter of 1.43% and PH value of 9.98 at a temperature reading 2980c. The soap was moderately soft and very soluble in water.
The quality of soap produced conformed to all the requirements for toilet soap from Standard Organization of Nigeria (SON). It was found out that the soap has no inferiors effect on the skin; does not contain any visible foreign matter which means that the soap was properly mixed, does not encourage microbial growth and lathers effectively.
It was also found that the cost of producing the herbal/medicated or antiseptic soap was N63.00k compared to that sold in the market for N100.00k per tablet. Thus, the production based on the research work was profitable and more economical.
Table of Content
Title Page
Acknowledgement
Dedication
Letter Of Transmittal
Abstract
Content

Chapter One
1.0 Introduction

1.1 Scope And Objectives Of The Research Work
1.2 Significance Of The Research

Chapter Two
2.0 Literature Review

2.0 Historical Review
2.1 Differences Between Soap And Detergent
2.2 Raw Materials For Soap Manufacture
2.21 Fatty And Allied Materials
2.22 Non-Fatty Materials
2.3 Soap Manufacturing Process
2.3.1 Cold Process
2.3.2 Semi Hot Process
2.3.3 Hot Process
2.4 Centripure Process
2.35 Rationalized Kettle Process
2.36 Production From Fatty Acids
2.4 The Chemistry Of Soap Formation
2.5 Soap Finishing Processes
2.51 Finishing Processes For Laundry Soap
2.52 Finishing Processes For Toilet Soaps
2.6 Washing Action Of Soap
2.7 Qualities Of A Good Soap And Factors Affecting Them
2.8 Characteristics Of Soap
2.9 Types Of Soap

Chapter Three
3.0 Uses Of Soap.

3.1 Soap Additives
3.2 Experimental Procedure
3.3 Principles Of Soap Making Soap
3.32 Techniquies Of Soap Making
3.320 Cold Process
3.321 Semi – Cold Process
3.322 Hot Process
3.33 Raw Materials For Soap Production
3.34 Principal Fats And Oils Used For Making Soap
3.35 Palm Kernel Oil
3.36 Analysis Of Fats And Oils
3.37 Sponification
3.370 A Slow Incubation Period
3.371 A Rapid Reaction Period
3.372 Gradual Completion Stage
3.39 Summary Of Soap Making Principles
3.40 Cleansing Action Of Soap
3.41 Them

Chapter Four
4.50 Experimental Analysis

4.51 Experimental Analysis Of Pko
4.52 Free Fatty Acid And Acid Value Determination
4.53 Refractive Determination Significance
4.54 Saponification Value
4.55 Determination Of Moisture Content Of Soap
4.56 Alchol Insoluble Matter Determination
4.59 Determination Of Free Alkali Content Of Soap

Chapter Five
5.1 Experimental Results

Chapter Six
6.1 Discussion

Chapter Seven
7.1 Conclusion

Chapter Eight
8.1 Recommendation

References
Appendices
Appendix 1
Appendix 11
Appendix 111
Soap Analysis
Chapter One
Chapter One of Formulation And Production Of Levera Soap Project Material starts from here.

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1.0 INTRODUCTION
Soap is defined as the sodium salt of fatty acid. It is a saponification products of fat and oil.
The washing industry, usually known as the soap industry, has root over 2000 years in the past, a soap factory being found in the Pompeii excavation. However, among the many chemical process industries, none has experience such a fundamental change in chemical raw materials as have the washing industries. It has been generally accepted that the per capital use of toilet soap is a reliable guide to the standard of living for any country.
Moreover, the process of soap making has progressed from batch-wise saponification process to continous saponification process, which was first installed in 1937 by procter and gamble.
In otherwords, soap is the earliest detergent known to man and apparently was first made by the Roman from animal’s fats and wood ashes (which contains the alkali potassium carbonate) about 2500 years ago. In colonial America and until the 1940s, most soap was manufactured by an alkaline hydrolysis reaction called saponification.

1.1 SCOPE AND OBJECTIVES OF THE RESEARCH WORK
This project is concerned with the production of a high quality soap from local raw materials such as palm kernel oil, hence emphasis shall be placed on soaps rather than on soapless detergents.
The making of soap is one of the oldest of chemical synthesis/whom the German tribeman of Caeser time boiled goat tallow with potash leached from the ashes of wood fire’s they were carrying out the some chemical reactions as the one carried out on a tremendous scale by modern soap manufacturers, hydrolysis of glycerine which yields salt of the carboxylic acids and glycerol.
Soap may vary in composition and method of processing: if made from olive oil, it is enstile soap; alcohol can be added to make it transparent; our can be beaten in to make it float; perfumes, dyes, germicides can be added; if a potassium salt (instead of a sodium salt) is used; it is a soft soap. Chemically however, soap remains pretty much the same and does its job the same way.
The overall objective of this research project is geared towards producing soap of very good quality from palm kernel oil at a very economic way.

1.2 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE RESEARCH
Soap can be produced with a wide range variety of raw material. It basic composition is a product of an alkali, or a mixture of alkalis an oil or its blend. However, from literature survey, it was found that various types of oils differed, consequently their soap product differed.
In this research work, high quality industrial soap can be produced using palm kernel oil. The work involves working out the soap formulae and using the formulations to produce soap. The soaps so produced will then be tested analytically to determine their various physical and chemical properties. Finally, recommendations will be made.

Chapter One of Formulation And Production Of Levera Soap Project Material ends here.

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Chapter Two
Chapter two of this Formulation And Production Of Levera Soap” research work is available. Order full work to download. Chapter Two of “Formulation And Production Of Levera Soap Contains: Literature Review, Historical Review, Differences Between Soap And Detergent, Raw Materials For Soap Manufacture, Fatty And Allied Materials, Non-Fatty Materials, Soap Manufacturing Process, Cold Process, Semi Hot Process, Hot Process, Centripure Process, Rationalized Kettle Process, Production From Fatty Acids, The Chemistry Of Soap Formation, Soap Finishing Processes, Finishing Processes For Laundry Soap, Finishing Processes For Toilet Soaps, Washing Action Of Soap, Qualities Of A Good Soap And Factors Affecting Them, Characteristics Of Soap and Types Of Soap.
Chapter Three
Chapter three of this Formulation And Production Of Levera Soap” academic work is available. Order full work to download. Chapter Three of “Formulation And Production Of Levera Soap Contains: Uses Of Soap, Soap Additives, Experimental Procedure, Principles Of Soap Making Soap, Techniques Of Soap Making, Cold Process, Semi – Cold Process, Hot Process, Raw Materials For Soap Production, Principal Fats And Oils Used For Making Soap, Palm Kernel Oil, Analysis Of Fats And Oils, Sponification, A Slow Incubation Period, A Rapid Reaction Period, Gradual Completion Stage, Summary Of Soap Making Principles, Cleansing Action Of Soap and Them.
Chapter Four
Chapter four of this Formulation And Production Of Levera Soap project work is available. Order full work to download. Chapter Four of Formulation And Production Of Levera Soap Contains: Experimental Analysis, Experimental Analysis Of Pko, Free Fatty Acid And Acid Value Determination, Refractive Determination Significance, Saponification Value, Determination Of Moisture Content Of Soap, Alchol Insoluble Matter Determination and Determination Of Free Alkali Content Of Soap.
Chapter Five
Chapter five of this Formulation And Production Of Levera Soap material is available. Order full work to download. Chapter Five of Formulation And Production Of Levera Soap Contains: Experimental Results.
Chapter Six
Chapter six of this Formulation And Production Of Levera Soap material is available. Order full work to download. Chapter Six of “Formulation And Production Of Levera Soap Contains: Discussion.
Chapter Seven
Chapter seven of this Formulation And Production Of Levera Soap material is available. Order full work to download. Chapter Seven of “Formulation And Production Of Levera Soap Contains: Conclusion.Recommendation, References, Appendices, Appendix 1, Appendix 11, Appendix 111 and Soap Analysis.