Production Of A High Quality Bar Soap And Compare With Detergent
Written by: Verify ☛ Chapters = 5 ☛ Pages = 104 ☛ Words = 13,648 ☛ Type = Project
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In soap production, cold process was used and this was found out to be the most effective means of production considering several factors. In the production of bar soaps, palm kernel oil was used instead of fallow or grease. This is because palm kernel has a low titre value and gives a quicker lather and the fallow or grease gives a high titre value which produce soap that is slow to dissolve at low temperature. Different formulation were made and it was found out that the best ratio for a high quality soap is 2:1 of palm kernel to caustic soda respectively. Carrying out test on soap produced were saponification value of P.K.O to be 248.24 refractive index 1.45, free fatty acid value of 1.56, acid value of 3.5, moisture content of soap 35.29%, percentage free alkaline 0.4% alcohol insoluble matter of 1.43% and PH value of 8.80 at a temperature reading of 30.00.
The synthetic detergent which was developed to replace the soapy detergent has a better quality. It was prepared by a sulphonation reaction when this reaction is carried out, a detergent paste is formed which when builders and other additives were added, it then form detergent which was size reduced and seized.
The sieved detergent was dried by solar energy. From the project, it was discovered that (STPP) helps the detergent to reduce water hardness sequestering calcium ion and heavy metal ion water, could increase the cleaning action of detergent. And also the hydrogen peroxide acts as stain removal due to its bleaching action, the CMC acts as anti-redeposition agent.
The high quality bar soap was found to contain certain materials which limit the formation of scum in hard water and this ascertained that the synthetic detergent is not more effective than bar soap when washing and moreover bar soap does not change the colour of a material when washing but detergent does by bleaching the colour.
Letter Of Transmittal
2.0 Literature Review
3.0 Experimental Procedure
4.0 Experimental Calculation
5.0 Experimental Results And Analysis
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Soap is a class of products that serves for leaning of human property and surrounding. Hence foam in its various foams is in high demand in all society. It is a cleansing agent described chemically as an alkaline metal salt of a long carbon- chain monocarboxylic acid, represented for example by sodium myristate (NaCooC13H27) is shown below:
H3C CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2
CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2
The hydrocarbon portion is hydrophobic and carboxylate portion is hydrophic.
For detergency process, the most useful hydrophobic portion contains 12 – 18 carbon atoms. Sodium soaps are not useful for soil removal with hydrocarbon chains of less than 12 carbons. When the chain length exceeds 18 carbons, they become insoluble in water.
Soaps and detergent belong to the general class of substances known as surface agents or surfactants. These are substances which when dissolved in a solvent even at very low concentration have the property of lowering the surface energy and hence altering the surface behaviour of the solvent to an extreme degree.
In general, the surface active agents are composed of fairly large molecules which contain separated groups of dissimilar nature, one group being of a hydrophilic or water – attracting, character while the other group has a hydrophobic or oil attracting character and also it exhibited in aqueous or non aqueous system.
In this work, high quality industrial soap can be produced using sodium hydroxide and palm kernel oil. Ordinary soap today is simply a mixture of sodium salts of long chain fatty acids. Fatty acids are the basic raw materials for soap and most of the inorganic materials for soap and most of the inorganic material such as Oleum, caustic soda and various sodium phosphate and a large number of additives, the last mentioned amount is 4% or less of the total products weight are purchased.
The overall objective of this research project is geared towards the production of high quality bar soap compare with detergent.
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